Each of the first six months of 2016 set a record as the warmest respective month globally in the modern temperature record, which dates to 1880, according to scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York.
The six-month period from January to June was also the planet’s warmest half-year on record, with an average temperature 1.3 degrees Celsius (2.4 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than the late nineteenth century.
It is shown in data collected from NASA and the UK that the temperatures were about 0,07 degrees Celsius above the 2015 mark.
Five of the first six months of 2016 also set records for the smallest respective monthly Arctic sea ice extent since consistent satellite records began in 1979, according to analyses developed by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland. The one exception, March, recorded the second smallest extent for that month.
According to the NASA scientists five of the first six months of 2016 also set records for the smallest respective monthly Arctic sea ice extent since consistent satellite records began in 1979, according to analyses developed by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland. The one exception, March, recorded the second smallest extent for that month.
The limit of Arctic sea ice at the peak of summer melt season now typically covers 40 percent less area than it did in late 1970s and early 1980s.
NASA says that 2016 was the third year in a row to break the record. The EL Nino weather phenomenon played very important role but the main reason was human emissions of CO2.
After the latest conclusions, it is shocking to know that likely outcome was trailed heavily towards the end of last year.
Scientists says “that 2015 was the warmest year on record up until now, so 2016 has just beaten that and its beaten that by 0.1-0.12 of a degree Celsius.”
According to Dr Gavin Schmidt “This is a very clear record that we’re seeing. It is driven mainly by changes in the tropical Pacific where we had an El Niño event that produced a lot of warmth. But we’ve also seen long term trends in warming mostly due to the increasing greenhouse gases.”
Prof Ellie Highwood from the University of Reading said “We understand the contribution El Niño makes fairly well and we’ve seen it many times but even if you take that contribution away, we would expect 2015 and 2016 to still be the warmest years we’ve seen, so a majority of it is coming from global warming and the greenhouse effect.”
Several meteorological agencies have given their figures and according to them 2016 was the record warmest year.
The Met Office says that 2016 was 0.77 above the long term rate, but with a plus or minus error margin of 0.1C, meaning that last year was at the very least, one of the two warmest years on record.
“The final figures confirm that 2016 was yet another extremely warm year,” said Peter Stott from the Met Office.
The temperature for last year was very close to the year before, temperatures for 2016 exceeding those for 2015 by a small margin.”
NASA’s long-running Operation IceBridge campaign began a series of airborne measurements of melt ponds on the surface of the Arctic sea ice cap. Melt ponds are shallow pools of water that form as ice melts. Their darker surface can absorb more sunlight and accelerate the melting process.
IceBridge is flying out of Barrow, Alaska, during sea ice melt season to capture melt pond observations at a scale never before achieved. Recent studies have found that the formation of melt ponds early in the summer is a good predictor of the yearly minimum sea ice extent.
Nathan Kurtz, Ice Bridge’s project scientist and a sea ice researcher said “No one has ever, from a remote sensing standpoint, mapped the large-scale depth of melt ponds on sea ice.”
“The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average. The persistent loss of sea-ice is driving weather, climate and ocean circulation patterns in other parts of the world. We also have to pay attention to the potential release of methane from melting permafrost,” said Petteri Taalas from the WMO.
All the scientist researches are showing that earth is once again more than one degree warmer than pre-industrial times.
Prof Mark Maslin, from University College London says “Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st Century and shows no signs of slowing down,”
It is said by researchers that 2017 will break the previous records and will be in the top five hottest years and the causes could be the cycle of carbon movement between the atmosphere and land, thawing permafrost, the relationship between fire and climate change, and more.